Space Weather and Atmosphere team

Our ambition

Large explosions on the Sun known as coronal mass ejections can spew out billions of tons of charged particles and magnetic field into space. When these disturbances reach the Earth they can trigger geomagnetic storms and increase particle radiation levels, causing disruption to power grids, satellites, aviation, and a host of other dependent businesses.   These effects are known as Space Weather. Solar variations are also linked to changes in the atmosphere and surface temperature in the Polar Regions but how this occurs and how it affects weather and climate are open questions.

Winter image of the Halley VI Research Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf in Antarctica with aurora
Aurora over Halley VI Research Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf , Antarctica.

The goal of the Space Weather and Atmosphere team is to understand how solar variations affect the Earth’s space radiation environment, upper atmosphere and climate in the Polar Regions.

Our research provides the information needed by the Space Industry, UK Insurance and Government to mitigate the effects of severe Space Weather, and to assess the solar contribution to climate change in the Polar Regions.

Team priorities


  • Space radiation environment. To measure, simulate and predict changes in space radiation environment as they affect satellites, and to develop realistic scenarios of severe space weather events. These results are being used to assess which satellite orbits are most at risk and to develop better mitigation guidelines. They are also being used to provide real-time situation awareness for satellite operators.
  • Atmospheric heating. To measure the heating and upward expansion of the polar atmosphere due to electrical currents set up during geomagnetic storms. This process, known as Joule heating, is the largest uncertainty in orbit prediction for satellites and space debris. The results will help provide better collision avoidance measures between satellites and space debris in low Earth orbit.
  • Climate impacts on satellites orbits. To model and measure changes in the upper atmosphere related to increased levels of CO2 and to the impact the long term impact this has on the satellite and space debris environment. These results will inform best practice for satellite operators for long-term planning.
  • Space-atmosphere coupling. To measure changes in atmospheric chemistry caused by particle precipitation and assess how they can affect the heating and cooling of the upper atmosphere. These results are being used in models to determine how they couple through the atmosphere to affect surface temperature and to determine their effect on polar climate.
  • Solar effects on climate. To measure changes in the geoelectric field and understand how it can affect the atmosphere. Changes in the geoelectric field between the ground and the ionosphere have been linked to changes in atmospheric temperature, from the surface upwards.

Technology, innovation and training

  • Using High Frequency over-the-horizon radars to understand coupling between the Sun, solar wind and the upper atmosphere, and the transport of charged particles in the radiation belts
  • Using Medium Frequency radars to measure high altitude winds and atmospheric circulation in the polar vortex
  • Developing state-of-the-art sub-millimetre radiometer technology to measure upper atmosphere winds and chemistry with Cambridge University
  • Using an array of remote, low power magnetometers to measure changes in the geomagnetic field and electrical currents generated by Space Weather
  • Using the BAS radiation belt model to simulate and predict the Earth’s radiation environment for satellites (a model equivalent to a general circulation model in atmospheric science), built upon important models of particle and wave process.
  • Exploiting data collected by constellations of satellites on charged particles, electromagnetic fields and atmospheric composition
  • Training young scientists via PhD studentships via NERC Doctoral Training Partnerships (DTP) such as the Cambridge Earth System Science and Southampton INSPIRE and via short term student vacation projects

Influencing and leading international programmes

  • Continue setting scientific priorities as one of the PI Groups in the international SuperDARN radar network, and the AARDDVARK radio receiver consortium
  • Continue leading the European Union SPACESTORM project
  • Continue to play a leading role in the International Association of Geophysics and Aeronomy (IAGA), and the VLF/ELF Remote Sensing of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere (VERSIM) scientific planning

Stakeholder engagement

  • Continue providing expert advice to the Cabinet Office and UK Government departments through our membership of the Space Environment Impacts Expert Group (SEIEG) , meeting with the Government Office of Science and officials from Departments such as Business and Trade, Science, Innovation & Technology, and Transport.
  • Continue our collaborations with the space industry including UK insurance, European satellite operators and satellite designers, through our leadership of the European SPACESTORM project
  • Organising an annual end-user lunch at the European Space Weather Week jointly with the European Space Agency
  • Continue representing the UK on the Council of the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar and supporting UK users of the facility

Public engagement

  • Disseminating information by publishing our results in high-impact peer reviewed Journals, giving presentations at international conferences and issuing press releases when appropriate
  • Organising and running scientific sessions at International conferences

Gareth Chisham

Space Weather Researcher


Mark Clilverd

Atmospheric Physicist IMP 3


Ingrid Cnossen

Independent Research Fellow


Mervyn Freeman

Science Leader


Sarah Glauert

Radiation Belt Modeller


Richard Horne

Science Leader - IMP 1


Andrew Kavanagh

Middle Atmosphere Vertical Coupling Analyst


Nigel Meredith

Space Weather Research Scientist


Emma Woodfield

Radiation Belt Modeller


Mai Mai Lam

Space Weather Programmer/Scientist


Thomas Daggitt

PhD Student


The thermosphere is the uppermost layer of our atmosphere at the edge of space (85 to 1000 km altitude). Within this region orbit thousands of satellites worth billions of pounds …


Rad-Sat is a NERC Highlight Topic that brings together a consortium of scientists from 5 different UK research groups, stakeholders from the space industry and a network of international collaborators. …


The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) has been operating as an international co-operative organisation for over 25 years, and has proved to be one of the most successful tools …

IMAGE Auroral Boundary Data

The objective of this project was to investigate whether magnetic reconnection in the space environment has a characteristic scale in space and time by characterising statistically the spatial and temporal …

The Global Electric Circuit

Weather and climate prediction are inevitably limited by incomplete knowledge of the Earth system and its external influences. One under-explored and consequently controversial area of research is the meteorological influence …

LPM Network

Access data from the Low Power Magnetometer (LPM) network

EISCAT Science Support

The UK EISCAT support group (UKESG) is a collaboration between the British Antarctic Survey and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, funded via the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) EISCAT, the …


QEPPA is a joint project between the British Antarctic Survey and the Space physics group at Lancaster University. The objective of QEPPA is to work out the amount of charged …


SPACESTORM is a collaborative project to model space weather events and find ways to mitigate their effects on satellites. Over the last ten years the number of satellites on orbit …

Whole Atmosphere Climate Change

The near-Earth space environment is host to an increasing amount of advanced, satellite-based technology, used for both commercial and scientific purposes. To safeguard this technology and ensure that we can …


  Certain ground based technologies, such as electrical power grids, pipelines and railways are susceptible to the effects of Space Weather. Changes in the way the magnetic fields of the …


DRIIVE will use the new EISCAT_3D radar to understand multi-scale coupling in the Ionopshere and how it is influenced both by space weather and the lower atmosphere.  The impact of …

Sat Risk

Sat-Risk – Satellite Radiation Risk Forecasts – is a collaborative project between several academic institutions and stakeholders. The project is part of the Space Weather Instrumentation, Measurement, Modelling and Risk …


Violent eruptions on the Sun can trigger large magnetic storms at the Earth lasting for days.  These storms can increase the number of high-energy charged particles trapped in the radiation …


The goal of the Radbelt-DA project is to apply data assimilation techniques used in weather forecasting to the BAS radiation belt model (BAS-RBM).  This will enable much better reconstructions of …

‘Sounds of Space’

Using a Very Low Frequency receiver at Halley Research Station we can pick up radio waves made by our planet. We use these waves to investigate the science of space …

Joule Heating

Society is highly dependent on the fleet of satellites that surround our planet. We rely on them for entertainment, communication, navigation, weather forecasting, and more.  Many day-to-day activities, such as …


Space debris is emerging as a key problem for humanity with the potential to cause major socio-economic impacts. It is currently estimated that there are over 900,000 pieces of debris …


The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) provides a forecast of high energy electrons in the Earth’s radiation belts which can cause damage to satellites on orbit. These forecasts are used by …


Recent research has demonstrated that electro-magnetic waves present in space can have a dramatic effect on the charged particles in the radiation belts. Under certain conditions the particles can resonate …

HOTRAY Ray Tracing Model

HOTRAY is a ray tracing computer code designed to trace the path of electromagnetic waves in a hot magnetised plasma.  HOTRAY has been used to understand the generation and propagation …


The radiation belts are the region of space around the Earth where high energy charged particles are trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field. The energy of the particles and their …

Geomagnetic storm sounds inspire new album

24 February, 2023

A new album inspired by the sounds of radio waves produced by a geomagnetic storm has been released. St Swithin’s Day Storm is a collaboration with Steven Anderson, known as …

Antarctica experiences rare total solar eclipse

3 December, 2021

A rare total solar eclipse in Antarctica this weekend (Saturday 4 December) is giving researchers a unique opportunity to learn more about how solar eclipses affect space weather. The next …

BAS staff recognised with Royal Society Fellowships

6 May, 2021

We are delighted to announce that today (6 May 2021) Professor Dame Jane Francis, Director of British Antarctic Survey, and Professor Richard Horne, Head of Space Weather and Atmosphere team, …

Medal win for space weather scientist

13 November, 2020

The award recognises Professor Horne’s unique ability to combine basic and applied research to develop useful space weather products.

Space weather monitoring receives funding boost

27 June, 2020

Space weather research at British Antarctic Survey (BAS) receives a funding boost of around £2M today (Saturday 27 June) from the SWIMMR (Space Weather Instrumentation, Measurement, Modelling and Risk) programme. …

Appleton Prize awarded to Professor Richard Horne

4 March, 2020

British Antarctic Survey is pleased to announce the Appleton Prize 2020 has been awarded to Professor Richard Horne, Head of the Space Weather and Atmosphere science team at British Antarctic …

Space weather study wins accolade

4 November, 2019

A team of international researchers, including Professor Richard Horne from British Antarctic Survey, has been awarded best research study from the journal Risk Analysis for 2019. The study, led by …

Funding boost for space weather research

24 September, 2019

Space weather research gets a  boost this week with a £20m fund announced by the UK  Prime Minister. Space weather, such as flares or winds from the Sun’s surface or …

Space weather causes radiation damage to satellites

1 July, 2019

The use of electric propulsion for raising satellites into geostationary orbit can result in significant solar cell degradation according to a new study. The extended journey results in greater exposure …

Scientist awarded prestigious award

15 January, 2019

British Antarctic Survey space weather scientist, Dr Mark Clilverd, has been awarded a prestigious award from the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) in their 2019 Awards. The award recognises Mark as …

A new way to create Saturn’s radiation belts

29 November, 2018

A team of international scientists from BAS, University of Iowa and GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has discovered a new method to explain how radiation belts are formed around …

New study reveals potential cost of solar storms

18 January, 2017

The daily U.S. economic cost from solar storm-induced electricity blackouts could total more than $40 billion, with more than half the loss occurring outside the blackout zone, says new study. …

Royal Astronomical Society honours BAS scientist

13 January, 2017

Dr Mervyn Freeman, Senior Space Weather Researcher at British Antarctic Survey, has been awarded the prestigious Chapman Medal in Geophysics by the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS). The medal recognises his …

FEATURED PAPER: Energetic Electron Hazard

13 June, 2016

Energetic electrons are an important space weather hazard. In this paper we apply extreme value analysis to 16 years of operational satellite data from the NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellites …

PRESS RELEASE: New season – ambitious science

23 November, 2015

New season tackles ambitious science and logistical challenges The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) 2015/16 field season is underway with dozens of scientists and support staff – together with planes and tonnes …

NEWS STORY: Space weather features at free event

4 June, 2015

FREE event: ‘Discover Antarctica’ at British Geological Survey Open Day, Saturday 27 June, 10am-4pm Staff from British Antarctic Survey (BAS) will showcase its work at this year’s British Geological Survey …

NEWS STORY: NERC placement offered

6 May, 2015

NERC Research Experience Placement 2015 A Research Experience Placement supported by EnvEast DTP and funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) is available at British Antarctic Survey (BAS) this …

NEWS STORY: Lessons from electrons

14 October, 2014

Study of electrons in space could help weather forecasting Researchers have discovered a formerly undetected impact of space weather on the polar atmosphere, which may explain some previously unexplained variations …

NEWS STORY: Changes in upper atmosphere

23 May, 2014

Earth’s magnetic field is important for climate change at high altitudes New research, published this week, has provided scientists with greater insight into the climatic changes happening in the upper …

NEWS STORY: Improving space weather forecasting

9 June, 2013

Space weather forecasting system used by satellite operators Weather forecasting is a tricky enough job on Earth, but doing it for the outer atmosphere and beyond is even more problematic. …

NEWS STORY: BAS involved in NASA mission

30 August, 2012

British Antarctic Survey scientists involved in NASA ‘space weather’ mission WASHINGTON — NASA’s Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), the first twin-spacecraft mission designed to explore the Earth’s radiation belts, launched …

PRESS RELEASE: Space weather forecasting

29 March, 2011

Major EU-funded space weather initiative launched and managed in UK A major EU-funded initiative to improve ‘space weather’ forecasting will hold its inaugural meeting in the UK on Tuesday 29 …

PRESS RELEASE: New research sheds light on Aurora

20 October, 2010

New space research settles years of scientific debate New space research published this week (Thursday 21 October) in the journal Nature, has settled decades of scientific debate. Researchers from the …

The challenge to understand the zoo of particle transport regimes during resonant wave-particle interactions for given survey-mode wave spectra

13 March, 2024 by Nigel Meredith

Quasilinear theories have been shown to well describe a range of transport phenomena in magnetospheric, space, astrophysical and laboratory plasma “weak turbulence” scenarios. It is well known that the resonant…

Read more on The challenge to understand the zoo of particle transport regimes during resonant wave-particle interactions for given survey-mode wave spectra

Chorus wave power at the strong diffusion limit overcomes electron losses due to strong diffusion

27 February, 2024 by Richard Horne, Sarah Glauert, Thomas Daggitt

Earth’s radiation belts consist of high-energy charged particles trapped by Earth’s magnetic field. Strong pitch angle diffusion of electrons caused by wave-particle interaction in Earth’s radiation belts has primarily been…

Read more on Chorus wave power at the strong diffusion limit overcomes electron losses due to strong diffusion