Middle Atmosphere Vertical Coupling Analyst
I am the Deputy Science Leader of the Space Weather and Atmosphere Team at BAS, and a member of the NERC supported UK EISCAT Support Group (UKESG).
I started at BAS in January 2012 as part of the Middle Atmosphere Dynamics group in the climate program. I worked on projects involving the dynamics of the middle and upper atmosphere using a variety of instruments, but concentrating on the two Medium Frequency (MF) radars that BAS operated at our research stations at Halley and Rothera. With the restructure of the BAS science programs I joined the newly formed Space Weather and Atmosphere Team.
Being a Space Weather scientist means that I have been lucky enough to spend time in both the Arctic and Antarctic during my career; the polar regions are the primary gateways by which space weather interacts with the Earth’s atmosphere. I am currently the PI for the MF radar at Rothera, which I use to study the coupling of the atmosphere to the space environment.
- 1999-2002 PhD in Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Lancaster University)
- 1995-1999 MPhys. in Physics with Space Science and Technology (University of Leicester)
- 2012 onwards British Antarctic Survey
- 2010-2011 Senior Research Associate, Department of Physics, Lancaster University
- 2005-2010 Senior Research Associate, Department of Communication Systems, Lancaster University
- 2004-2005 Lecturer (temporary cover), Department of Communication Systems, Lancaster University
- 2002-2004 Post-doctoral fellow, High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
In my career to date I have worked on a number of projects related to understanding the Sun-Earth system, these have includes studies of the aurora, HF radio absorption, particle dynamics, geomagnetic pulsations, plasma heating and mesospheric dust. I was very lucky to take part in experiments that generated artificial aurora and be the project scientist for a VLF receiver mounted on a Yorkshire school roof that formed part of the AARDDVARK network.
I study how the layers of the atmosphere and the near-Earth space environment couple together – known as vertical coupling.
My main interests are:
- space weather influences on the neutral middle atmosphere and the effects on regional climate variability around the poles
- how the meteorology of the lower atmosphere impacts on processes in the upper atmosphere
- heating of the upper atmosphere via space weather events
Each of these is important for our understanding of space weather events and how they impact our lives.
There is growing evidence that changes in the solar wind can lead to temperature changes in the polar regions. Waves the transfer energy and momentum into the upper atmosphere can modify conditions that affect satellite signal fade-out & scintillation, and the behaviour of electric current systems. Space weather events lead to heating of the upper atmosphere which in turn affects the lifetime of satellites and space debris in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This is important to understand since LEO is becoming very crowded and collisions with debris can seriously damage satellites.
Part of the EISCAT Science Support Group working with colleagues at RAL Space
Middle & Upper Atmosphere
- Venkateswara Rao, N., P. J. Espy, R. E. Hibbins, D. C. Fritts, and A. J. Kavanagh: Observational evidence of the influence of Antarctic stratospheric ozone variability on middle atmosphere dynamics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7853–7859, doi:10.1002/2015GL065432., 2015
- T. Moffat-Griffin, M. J. Jarvis, S. R. Colwell, A. J. Kavanagh, G. L. Manney, and W. H. Daffer: Seasonal variations in lower stratospheric gravity wave energy above the Falkland Islands, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 10,861–10,869, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50859., 2013.
- Routledge, G. M. J. Kosch, A. Senior, A. J. Kavanagh, I. W. McCrea, and M. T. Rietveld: A statistical survey of electron temperature enhancements in heater modulated polar mesospheric summer echoes at EISCAT, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar Terrestrial Physics 73(4), 472-482. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2010.11.004. 2011.
- A. Kero, C. F. Enell, A. J. Kavanagh, J. Vierinen, I. Virtanen, E. Turunen: Could negative ion production explain the polar mesosphere winter echo (PMWE) modulation in active HF heating experiments? Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(23), doi: 10.1029/2008GL035798 2008
- A. J. Kavanagh, F. Honary, M. T. Rietveld, and A. Senior. First Observations of the Artificial Modulation of Polar Mesospheric Winter Echoes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(19) L19801. doi:10.1029/2006GL027565, 2006.
- E. Griffin, M. Kosch, A. Aruliah, A. J. Kavanagh, I. McWhirter, A. Senior, E. Ford, C. Davis, T. Abe, J. Kurihara, K. Kauristie, and Y. Ogawa. Combined Ground-based Optical Support for the Aurora (DELTA) Sounding Rocket Campaign. Earth, Planets and Space. 58(9), 1113-1121, 2006.
- C. J. Rodger, A. J. Kavanagh, M. A. Clilverd, and S. R. Marple: Comparison between POES energetic electron precipitation observations and riometer absorptions: Implications for determining true precipitation fluxes, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 7810–7821, doi:10.1002/2013JA019439. 2013.
- A. J. Kavanagh, F. Honary, E. F. Donovan, T. Ulich, and M. H. Denton (2012): Key features of >30 keV electron precipitation during high speed solar wind streams: A superposed epoch analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A00L09, doi:10.1029/2011JA017320.
- Rodger, C. J., M. A. Clilverd, A. J. Kavanagh, C. E. J. Watt, P. T. Verronen, and T. Raita: Contrasting the responses of three different ground-based instruments to energetic electron precipitation, Radio Sci., 47, RS2021, doi:10.1029/2011RS004971. 2012.
- J. J. Denton, M.H. Denton, A. J. Kavanagh, H. Harron, T. Ulich, J. S. Denton: Training school pupils in the sceintific method: Student participation in an international VLF radio experiment, Phys. Educ., 47, 64, doi: 10.1088/0031-9120/47/1/64, 2012
- A. J. Kavanagh, M. Denton, J. Denton, H. Harron: Probing Geospace with VLF radio signals, Astronomy and Geophysics, 52(2), 27-30, 2011
- P. Wild, F. Honary, A. J. Kavanagh and A. Senior: Triangulating the height of Cosmic Noise Absorption: A method for estimating the Characteristic Energy of Precipitating Electrons, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 115(A12326) doi:10.1029/2010JA015766. 2010
- M. A. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, S. Dietrich T. Raita, T. Ulich, E. Clarke, A. W. P. Thomson and A. J. Kavanagh: High-latitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio wave receiver systems. Rad. Sci. 45. doi: 10.1029/2009RS004215. 2010
- N. Longden, F. Honary, A. J. Kavanagh, and J. Manninen: The Driving Mechanisms of Particle Precipitation during the Moderate Geomagnetic Storm of 7 January 2005, Ann. Geophys.. 25(9) SRef-ID:1432-0576/angeo/2007-25-2053. 2007.
- M. A. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, R. M. Millan, J. G. Sample, M. Kokorowski, M. P. McCarthy, T. Ulich, T. Raita, A. J. Kavanagh, and E. Spanswick: Energetic particle precipitation into the middle atmosphere triggered by a coronal mass ejection, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics. 112 A12206. doi:10.1029/2007JA012395. 2007.
- A. J. Kavanagh, G. Lu, E. F. Donovan, G. D. Reeves, F. Honary, J. Manninen, and T. J. Immel: Energetic Electron Precipitation during Sawtooth Injections, Ann. Geophys. 25(5), 1199-1214. SRef-ID:1432-0576/angeo/2007-25-1199. 2007.
- A. Kavanagh and M. Denton: High-speed solar-wind streams and geospace interactions. Astronomy and Geophysics. 48(6) 6.24-6.26, 2007.
- A. J. Kavanagh, S. R. Marple, F. Honary, I. W. McCrea, and A. Senior: On Solar Protons and Polar Cap Absorption: Constraints on an Empirical Relationship, Ann. Geophys. 22(4) pp. 1133-1147. SRef-ID:1432-0576/ag/2004-22-1133. 2004.
- A. J. Kavanagh, M. J. Kosch, F. Honary, A. Senior, S. R. Marple, E. E. Woodfield, and I. W. McCrea: The Statistical Dependence of Auroral Absorption on Geomagnetic and Solar Wind Parameters, Ann. Geophys. 22(3), 877-887. SRef-ID:1432-0576/ag/2004-22-877. 2004.
- E. E. Woodfield, J. A. Wild, A. J. Kavanagh, A. Senior, and S. E. Milan: Combining incoherent scatter radar data and IRI2007 to monitor the open-closed field line boundary during substorms, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics A00115. doi:10.1029/2010JA015751. 2010.
- M. Beharrell, A. J.Kavanagh and F. Honary: On the origin of high m magnetospheric waves, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 115, doi:10.1029/2009JA014709. 2010
- M. A. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, J. B. Brundell, J. L. Bahr, N. Cobbett, T. Moffat-Griffin, A. J. Kavanagh, A. Seppälä, N. R. Thomson, R. H. W. Friedel, and F. W. Menk: Energetic electron precipitation during sub-storm injection events: high latitude fluxes and an unexpected mid-latitude signature, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics. doi:10.1029/2008JA013220. 2008
- A. Aminaei, F. Honary, A. J. Kavanagh, E. Spanswick, and A. Viljanen: Characteristics of Night-time Absorption Spike Events. Ann. Geophys. 24(7), 1887-1904. SRef-ID:1432-0576/ag/2006-24-1887. 2006.
- A. J. Kavanagh, F. Honary, I. W. McCrea, E. Donovan, E. E. Woodfield, J. Manninen, and P. C. Anderson: Substorm Related Changes in Precipitation in the Dayside Auroral Zone – A Multi Instrument Case Study, Ann. Geophys. 20(9), 1321-1334. SRef-ID:1432-0576/ag/2002-20-1321. 2002.
Ionosphere and Aurora
- A. J. Kavanagh, J. A. Wild, and F. Honary: Observations of Omega Bands Using an Imaging Riometer, Ann. Geophys.. 27(11), 4183-4195. SRef-ID: 1432-0576/angeo/2009-27-4183, 2009.
- L. Alfonsi, A. J. Kavanagh, E. Amata, P. Cilliers, E. Correia, M. Freeman, K. Kauristie, R. Liu, J.-P. Luntama, C. N. Mitchell, G.A. Zherebtsov: Probing the high latitude ionosphere from ground-based observations: The state of current knowledge and capabilities during IPY (2007-2009), J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 70(18). 2293-2308, 2008
- B. Gustavsson, M. J. Kosch, A. Senior, A. J. Kavanagh, B. U. E. Brändström, and E. M. Blixt: Combined EISCAT Radar and Optical Multispectral and Tomographic Observations of Black Aurora, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics. ISSN 0148-0227. 113 A06308. doi:10.1029/2007JA012999. 2008.
- A. Senior, A. J. Kavanagh, M. J. Kosch, and F. Honary: Statistical Relationships Between Cosmic Radio Noise Absorption and Ionospheric Electrical Conductances in the Auroral Zone, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics. ISSN 0148-0227. 112 A11301. doi:10.1029/2007JA012519. 2007.
- K. Cierpka, M. J. Kosch, H. Holma, A. J. Kavanagh, and T. Hagfors: Novel Fabry-Perot Interferometer Measurements of F-region Ion Temperature, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 26-1-26-4. doi:10.1029/2002GL015833. 2003.
- M. J. Kosch, M. T. Rietveld, A. Senior, I. W. McCrea, A. J. Kavanagh, B. Isham, and F. Honary: Novel Artificial Optical Annular Structures in the High Latitude Ionosphere over EISCAT, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(12) L12805 1-4. doi:10.1029/2004GL019713. 2004.
- M. J. Kosch, M. T. Rietveld, A. J. Kavanagh, C. Davis, T. K. Yeoman, F. Honary, and T. Hagfors: High-latitude Pump-induced Optical Emissions for Frequencies Close to the Third Electron Gyro-harmonic, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(23), 2112-2115. doi:10.1029/2002GL015744. 2002.
Publications from NERC Open Research Archive
Collinson, Glyn, Glocer, Alex, Pfaff, Rob, Barjatya, Aroh, Bissett, Scott, Blix, Kolbjørn, Breneman, Aaron, Clemmons, Jim, Eparvier, Francis, Gass, Ted, Michell, Robert, Mitchell, David, Imber, Suzie, Ghalib, Ahmed, Akbari, Hassanali, Ansted, Glen, Baddeley, Lisa, Bahr, Håvard, Bain, Gary, Bonsteel, Brian, Borgen, Henry, Bowden, Daniel, Bowker, Dave, Cameron, Tim, Campbell, Meredith, Cathell, Philip, Chornay, Dennis, Clayton, Robert, Conser, Larry, Davis, Lance, Donohue, Sean, Eilertsen, Leif Jonny, Etheridge, Charles, Graves, Nathan, Häggstrøm, Ingemar, Hanssen, Preben, Haugh, Herbert, Helgesen, Espen, Henderson, Jordan, Herseth, Kim Roar, Hickman, John, Jensen, Kent-Gøran, Jester, Travis, Johnson, Eric, Johnson, Hunter, Kavanagh, Andrew ORCID record for Andrew Kavanagh, King, Max, Knight, David, Laman, Russell, Lankford, Trevor, Lien, Rolf, Lester, Mark, Marsh, Gordon, Martin, Steve, Morris, Norman, Nguyen, Long, Nelson, Richard, Ogundere, Wale, Osbakk, Karl Henning, Page, Dave, Polidan, Joe, Raley, Devon, Raymond, Richard, Robertson, Ellen, Rosanova, Giovanni, Rosnack, Traci, Serabian, Belinda, Simonsen, Roger, Søreng, Jan Arne, Sveen, Jostein, Swanson, Diana, Swift, Robert, Uribe, Paulo, Valentine, Henry, Waters, Frank, West, Libby, Wilson, Tim. (2022) The Endurance Rocket Mission: Gauging Earth’s Ambipolar Electric Potential. Space Science Reviews, 218. 26 pp. 10.1007/s11214-022-00908-0
Kavanagh, Andrew J. ORCID record for Andrew J. Kavanagh, Ogawa, Yasunobu, Woodfield, Emma E. ORCID record for Emma E. Woodfield. (2022) Two techniques for determining F-region ion velocities at meso-scales: Differences and impacts on Joule heating. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 127. 23 pp. 10.1029/2021JA030062
Woodfield, E.E. ORCID record for E.E. Woodfield, Glauert, S.A. ORCID record for S.A. Glauert, Menietti, J.D., Horne, R.B. ORCID record for R.B. Horne, Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh, Shprits, Y.Y.. (2022) Acceleration of electrons by whistler-mode hiss waves at Saturn. Geophysical Research Letters, 49. 10.1029/2021GL096213
Brown, M.K., Lewis, H.G., Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh, Cnossen, I. ORCID record for I. Cnossen. (2021) Climate change in space: Thermospheric density reductions in LEO and the impact on the debris environment. 8th European Conference on Space Debris, 8. 10 pp.
Brown, M.K., Lewis, H.G., Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh, Cnossen, I. ORCID record for I. Cnossen. (2021) Future decreases in thermospheric neutral density in low Earth orbit due to carbon dioxide emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126. 11 pp. 10.1029/2021JD034589
Reidy, J.A. ORCID record for J.A. Reidy, Fear, R.C., Whiter, D.K., Lanchester, B.S., Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh, Price, D.J., Chadney, J.M., Zhang, Y., Paxton, L.J.. (2020) Multiscale observation of two polar cap arcs occurring on different magnetic field topologies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 125. 17 pp. 10.1029/2019JA027611
Gibbins, Maude, Kavanagh, Andrew ORCID record for Andrew Kavanagh. (2020) Mesospheric winds measured by MF radar with full correlation analysis: error properties and impacts on studies of wind variance. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 9. 16 pp. 10.5194/gi-9-223-2020
Fritts, David C., Iimura, Hiroyuki, Janches, Diego, Lieberman, Ruth S., Riggin, Dennis M., Mitchell, Nicholas J., Vincent, Robert A., Reid, Iain M., Murphy, Damian J., Tsutsumi, Masaki, Kavanagh, Andrew J. ORCID record for Andrew J. Kavanagh, Batista, Paulo P., Hocking, Wayne K.. (2019) Structure, variability, and mean-flow interactions of the January 2015 quasi-two-day wave at middle and high southern latitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124. 5981-6008. 10.1029/2018JD029728
Denton, M.H., Kivi, R., Ulich, T., Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A. ORCID record for M.A. Clilverd, Horne, R.B. ORCID record for R.B. Horne, Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh. (2018) Solar proton events and stratospheric ozone depletion over northern Finland. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 177. 218-227. 10.1016/j.jastp.2017.07.003
Kavanagh, Andrew J. ORCID record for Andrew J. Kavanagh, Cobbett, Neil, Kirsch, Peter ORCID record for Peter Kirsch. (2018) Radiation belt slot-region filling events: sustained energetic precipitation into the mesosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123. 7999-8020. 10.1029/2018JA025890
Reidy, Jade A. ORCID record for Jade A. Reidy, Fear, R.C., Whiter, D.K., Lanchester, B., Kavanagh, Andrew J. ORCID record for Andrew J. Kavanagh, Milan, S.E., Carter, J.A., Paxton, L.J., Zhang, Y.. (2018) Interhemispheric survey of polar cap aurora. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123. 7283-7306. 10.1029/2017JA025153
Newnham, David A. ORCID record for David A. Newnham, Clilverd, Mark A. ORCID record for Mark A. Clilverd, Rodger, C.J., Hendrickx, K., Megner, L., Kavanagh, Andrew J. ORCID record for Andrew J. Kavanagh, Seppälä, A., Verronen, P.T., Andersson, M.E., Marsh, D.R., Kovács, T., Feng, W., Plane, J.M.C.. (2018) Observations and modelling of increased nitric oxide in the Antarctic polar middle atmosphere associated with geomagnetic storm driven energetic electron precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123. 6009-6025. 10.1029/2018JA025507
Reidy, J.A. ORCID record for J.A. Reidy, Fear, R.C., Whiter, D.K., Lanchester, B.S., Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh, Paxton, L.J., Zhang, Y., Lester, M.. (2017) Multi-instrument observation of simultaneous polar cap auroras on open and closed magnetic field lines. Journal of Geophysical Research, 122. 4367-4386. 10.1002/2016JA023718
Moffat-Griffin, Tracy ORCID record for Tracy Moffat-Griffin, Taylor, Mike J., Nakamura, Takuji, Kavanagh, Andrew J. ORCID record for Andrew J. Kavanagh, Hosking, J. Scott ORCID record for J. Scott Hosking, Orr, Andrew ORCID record for Andrew Orr. (2017) 3rd ANtarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) science workshop. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 34. 1-3. doi:10.1007/s00376-016-6197-5
Rao, N. Venkateswara, Espy, P.J., Hibbins, R.E., Fritts, D.C., Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh. (2015) Observational evidence of the influence of Antarctic stratospheric ozone variability on middle atmosphere dynamics. Geophysical Research Letters, 42. 7853-7859. 10.1002/2015GL065432
Rodger, Craig J., Kavanagh, Andrew J. ORCID record for Andrew J. Kavanagh, Clilverd, Mark A. ORCID record for Mark A. Clilverd, Marple, Steve R.. (2013) Comparison between POES energetic electron precipitation observations and riometer absorptions; implications for determining true precipitation fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 118. 7810-7821. 10.1002/2013JA019439
Moffat-Griffin, T. ORCID record for T. Moffat-Griffin, Jarvis, M.J., Colwell, S.R., Kavanagh, A.J. ORCID record for A.J. Kavanagh, Manney, G.L., Daffer, W.H.. (2013) Seasonal variations in lower stratospheric gravity wave energy above the Falkland Islands. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118. 10861-10869. 10.1002/jgrd.50859
BAS scientists support NASA rocket mission
News 9 May, 2022
Grant to understand future impacts on atmospheric prediction
News 13 January, 2022
Riometer (Relative Ionospheric Opacity Meter)
Rothera MF (Medium Frequency) Radar
Halley MF (Medium Frequency) Radar
Most advanced space weather radar to be built in Arctic
News 23 August, 2017
EXHIBITION: New Scientist Live
Event 22 September, 2016
- UK representative, EISCAT Science Advisory Committee
- Member, EISCAT Science Support Group
- Topical Editor , Annales Geophysicae
- Principle Investigator, Rothera MF radar
- Visiting Scientist, RAL Space
- Fellow, Royal Astronomical Society
- Member, European Geosciences Union
- Co-Principle Investigator, Halley Riometer
- Chair, URSI Incoherent Scatter Working Group
- Member, EISCAT Common Programme Working Group