Finale: Impact of the ORCHESTRA/ENCORE programmes on Southern Ocean heat and carbon understanding
The 5-year Ocean Regulation of Climate by Heat and Carbon Sequestration and Transports (ORCHESTRA) programme and its 1-year extension ENCORE (ENCORE is the National Capability ORCHESTRA Extension) was an approximately 11-million-pound programme involving seven UK research centres that finished in March 2022. The project sought to radically improve our ability to measure, understand and predict the exchange, storage and export of heat and carbon by the Southern Ocean. It achieved this through a series of milestone observational campaigns in combination with model development and analysis. Twelve cruises in the Weddell Sea and South Atlantic were undertaken, along with mooring, glider and profiler deployments and aircraft missions, all contributing to measurements of internal ocean and air–sea heat and carbon fluxes. Numerous forward and adjoint numerical experiments were developed and supported by the analysis of coupled climate models. The programme has resulted in over 100 peer-reviewed publications to date as well as significant impacts on climate assessments and policy and science coordination groups. Here, we summarize the research highlights of the programme and assess the progress achieved by ORCHESTRA/ENCORE and the questions it raises for the future. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘Heat and carbon uptake in the Southern Ocean: the state of the art and future priorities’.
Authors: Meijers, Andrew J.S. ORCID record for Andrew J.S. Meijers, Meredith, Michael P. ORCID record for Michael P. Meredith, Shuckburgh, Emily F., Kent, Elizabeth C. ORCID record for Elizabeth C. Kent, Munday, David R. ORCID record for David R. Munday, Firing, Yvonne L. ORCID record for Yvonne L. Firing, King, Brian ORCID record for Brian King, Smyth, Timothy J., Leng, Melanie J. ORCID record for Melanie J. Leng, Nurser, A.J. George, Hewitt, Helene T., Abrahamsen, E. Povl ORCID record for E. Povl Abrahamsen, Weiss, Alexandra, Yang, Mingxi, Bell, Thomas G., Brearley, J. Alexander ORCID record for J. Alexander Brearley, Boland, Emma J.D. ORCID record for Emma J.D. Boland, Jones, Daniel C. ORCID record for Daniel C. Jones, Josey, Simon A. ORCID record for Simon A. Josey, Owen, Robyn P., Grist, Jeremy P. ORCID record for Jeremy P. Grist, Blaker, Adam T. ORCID record for Adam T. Blaker, Biri, Stavroula ORCID record for Stavroula Biri, Yelland, Margaret J. ORCID record for Margaret J. Yelland, Pimm, Ciara, Zhou, Shenjie ORCID record for Shenjie Zhou, Harle, James, Cornes, Richard C. ORCID record for Richard C. Cornes