Raised in Hobart, Australia, I first became involved with oceanography and the Southern Ocean in particular in my honours year at the University of Tasmania, Australia in 2004. My work there with high resolution models led me into my PhD, also at UTas, supervised by Nathan Bindoff (UTas) and Steve Rintoul (CSIRO). My PhD focussed on using a novel combination of altimetry and insitu hydrography to examine the full time evolving 3D structure of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This technique allows the removal of the dynamically less interesting meandering and eddying of the current, which dominates its variability, to examine more climatically critical trends. During this time I also had an opportunity to participate in two Antarctic research voyages on the Aurora Australis (BROKE-West, 2006) and SIPEX (2007), spending a total of 18 weeks at sea. These voyages definitely contributed to my fascination with the region and a determination to become an observational oceanographer.
Following my PhD, I took a short postdoc with Steve Rintoul at CSIRO looking at water mass export from the Antarctic continental shelf, followed by taking a Office of the Chief Executive post at CSIRO (Hobart) with Trevor McDougall. Here I used inverse techniques to examine mixing within a tracer contour/neutral density framework.
In 2012 I was offered at post at the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge, UK and gladly took it up. Moving my family and life from Tasmania where I had grown up and worked all my life was hard, but ultimately worthwhile. Since being at BAS I have taken part in two voyages in the Scotia Sea, leading one, and assumed leadership of the Open Oceans team within the Polar Ocean group. My work has expanded to include the examination of coupled climate models, focussing on the Southern Ocean, ocean thermodynamics, mixed layer and subduction processes and shelf export.
Southern Ocean dynamics, particularly ACC overturning and property trends. In particular I make use of property following techniques such as Gravest Empirical Modes to reduce aliasing. This technique takes advantage of the equivalent barotropic nature of the ocean and allowed me to separate the observed trends over the last few decades into adiabatic (due to water mass movement) and diabatic (actual changes in water mass properties) components.
Coupled Climate model analysis. Particularly understanding trends in the Southern Ocean. Coupled climate models do a fairly poor job of representing the Southern Ocean dynamics, particularly the overturning circulation. By understanding the reasons for this, I hope to improve both our estimation of uncertainty in overall climate variability and also improve the representation of key processes within the Southern Ocean. In particular I am interested in the potential that machine learning holds for identifying non-linear or unexpected relationships between variables within coupled climate models, and therefore helping us understand how the complex dynamics of these models relates one system to another.
Export of dense shelf water and Antarctic Bottom Water from Antarctic, particularly the Weddell and Scotia Seas. This is a water mass that allows long term sequestration of atmospheric properties, such as heat and carbon, in the deep ocean interior. However, it is formed by very regional air-sea-ice processes in the presence of ice shelve, complex bathymetric considerations and is therefore susceptible to change in response to climate forcing. Understanding both how these water masses are formed and how they may change in the future, both via observations and modelling is of great interest to me.
Jan Zika (Imperial College London). Thermohaline structure and transformations of the ocean in climate models
Peter Haynes (University of Cambridge). Transport pathways of SAMW/AAIW from the Southern Ocean to subtropical gyres.
Ivana Cerovecki (Scripps, California). Variability of SAMW properties, diagnosed using Argo
Piers Forster (University of Leeds). Understanding the oceans role in global surface temperature ‘hiatuses’.
See below this list for more recent publications:
Post, A.L., Meijers A., et al. Book chapter: Environmental Setting. In: De Broyer C. & Koubbi P., (chief editors). Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research; 1st edition (2014)
Meijers, A. J. S., N. L. Bindoff, and S. R. Rintoul. “Frontal movements and property fluxes: Contributions to heat and freshwater trends in the Southern Ocean.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012) 116.C8 (2011).
Williams, G. D., Meijers, A. J. S., Poole, A., Mathiot, P., Tamura, T., & Klocker, A. (2011). Late winter oceanography off the Sabrina and BANZARE coast (117–128 E), East Antarctica. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58(9), 1194-1210.
Meijers, A. J. S., Bindoff, N. L., & Rintoul, S. R. (2011). Estimating the four-dimensional structure of the Southern Ocean using satellite altimetry. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 28(4), 548-568.
Williams, G. D., Nicol, S., Aoki, S., Meijers, A. J. S., Bindoff, N. L., Iijima, Y., … & Klocker, A. (2010). Surface oceanography of BROKE-West, along the Antarctic margin of the south-west Indian Ocean (30–80∘ E). Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 57(9), 738-757.
Meijers, A. J. S., Klocker, A., Bindoff, N. L., Williams, G. D., & Marsland, S. J. (2010). The circulation and water masses of the Antarctic shelf and continental slope between 30 and 80∘ E. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 57(9), 723-737.
Charrassin, J. B., Hindell, M., Rintoul, S. R., Roquet, F., Sokolov, S., Biuw, M., Meijers, A., … & Guinet, C. (2008). Southern Ocean frontal structure and sea-ice formation rates revealed by elephant seals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(33), 11634-11639.
Meijers, A. J., N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts. “On the Total, Mean, and Eddy Heat and Freshwater Transports in the Southern Hemisphere of a ⅛°× ⅛° Global Ocean Model.” Journal of physical oceanography 37.2 (2007): 277-295.
Greenhill, J. G., Hill, K. M., Dieters, S., Fienberg, K., Howlett, M., Meijers, A., … & Senkbeil, C. (2006). Decrease in the orbital period of dwarf nova OY Carinae.Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 372(3), 1129-1132.
Hyder, Patrick, Edwards, John M., Allan, Richard P., Hewitt, Helene T., Bracegirdle, Thomas J., Gregory, Jonathan M., Wood, Richard A., Meijers, Andrew J.S., Mulcahy, Jane, Field, Paul, Furtado, Kalli, Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro, Williams, Keith D., Copsey, Dan, Josey, Simon A., Liu, Chunlei, Roberts, Chris D., Sanchez, Claudio, Ridley, Jeff, Thorpe, Livia, Hardiman, Steven C., Mayar, Michael, Berry, David I., Belcher, Stephen E.. (2018) Critical Southern Ocean climate model biases traced to atmospheric model cloud errors. Nature Communications, 9. 10.1038/s41467-018-05634-2
Meredith, Michael, Sundfjord, Arild, Henson, Stephanie, Meijers, Andrew, Murphy, Eugene, Bellerby, Richard, Daase, Malin, Cottier, Finlo, Belchier, Mark, Chierici, Melissa, Ellingsen, Ingrid, Falk-Petersen, Stig, Hill, Simeon, Holland, Paul, Tarling, Geraint, Trathan, Phil, Turner, John, Wilkinson, Jeremy, Batchellier, Layla, Capper, Linda, Oliver, Jamie. (2018) The state of the polar oceans 2018: making sense of our changing world. Cambridge, British Antarctic Survey, 14 pp.
Jones, Daniel C., Forget, Gael, Sinha, Bablu, Josey, Simon A., Boland, Emma J.D., Meijers, Andrew J.S., Shuckburgh, Emily. (2018) Local and remote influences on the heat content of the Labrador Sea: an adjoint sensitivity study. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123. 2646-2667. 10.1002/2018JC013774
Mackay, Neill, Ledwell, James R., Messias, Marie-José, Naveira Garabato, Alberto C., Brearley, J. Alexander, Meijers, Andrew J.S., Jones, Daniel C., Watson, Andrew J.. (2018) Diapycnal mixing in the Southern Ocean diagnosed using the DIMES tracer and realistic velocity fields. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123. 2615-2634. 10.1002/2017JC013536
Griffiths, Huw J., Meijers, Andrew J.S., Bracegirdle, Thomas J.. (2017) More losers than winners in a century of future Southern Ocean seafloor warming. Nature Climate Change, 7. 749-754. 10.1038/nclimate3377
Naveira Garabato, Alberto C., MacGilchrist, Graeme A., Brown, Peter J., Evans, D. Gwyn, Meijers, Andrew J.S., Zika, Jan D.. (2017) High-latitude ocean ventilation and its role in Earth’s climate transitions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 375. 20160324. 10.1098/rsta.2016.0324
Meijers, A.J.S., Meredith, M.P., Abrahamsen, E.P., Maqueda, M.A.M., Jones, D.C., Naveira Garabato, A.C.. (2016) Wind-driven export of Weddell Sea slope water. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121. 7530-7546. doi:10.1002/2016JC011757
Jones, Daniel C., Meijers, Andrew J.S., Shuckburgh, Emily, Sallee, Jean-Baptiste, Haynes, Peter, McAufield, Ewa K., Mazloff, Matthew R.. (2016) How does Subantarctic Mode Water ventilate the Southern Hemisphere subtropics?. Journal of Geophysical Research, 121. 6558-6582. 10.1002/2016JC011680
Hutchinson, K., Swart, S., Meijers, A., Ansorge, I., Speich, S.. (2016) Decadal-scale thermohaline variability in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121. 3171-3189. doi:10.1002/2015JC011491
Meredith, Michael, Meijers, Andrew, Naveira Garabato, Alberto, Brown, Peter, Venables, Hugh, Abrahamsen, Povl, Jullion, Loic, Messias, Marie-Jose. (2015) Circulation, retention and mixing of waters within the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean: the role of stratified Taylor columns. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 120. 547-562. 10.1002/2014JC010462
Post, Alexandra L., Meijers, Andrew J.S., Fraser, Alexander D., Meiners, Klaus M., Ayers, Jennifer, Bindoff, Nathan L., Griffiths, Huw J., Van de Putte, Anton, O'Brien, Philip E., Swadling, Kerrie M., Raymond, Ben. (2014) Environmental setting. In: Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean, Cambridge, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 46-64.
Meijers, A. J. S.. (2014) The Southern Ocean in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A, 372. 23 pp. 10.1098/rsta.2013.0296
Cougnon, E. A., Galton-Fenzi, B. K., Meijers, A. J. S., Legrésy, B.. (2013) Modeling interannual dense shelf water export in the region of the Mertz Glacier Tongue (1992-2007). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118. 5858-5872. doi:10.1002/2013JC008790
Sallee, J.-B., Shuckburgh, E., Bruneau, N., Meijers, AJ.S., Bracegirdle, T.J., Wang, Z., Roy, T.. (2013) Assessment of Southern Ocean water mass circulation and characteristics in CMIP5 models: Historical bias and forcing response. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118. 1830-1844. doi:10.1002/jgrc.20135
Sallee, J.-B., Shuckburgh, E., Bruneau, N., Meijers, A.J.S., Bracegirdle, T.J., Wang, Z.. (2013) Assessment of Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth in CMIP5 models: historical bias and forcing response. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118. 1845-1862. 10.1002/jgrc.20157
Bracegirdle, Thomas J., Shuckburgh, Emily, Sallee, Jean-Baptiste, Wang, Zhaomin, Meijers, Andrew J.S., Bruneau, Nicolas, Phillips, Tony, Wilcox, Laura J.. (2013) Assessment of surface winds over the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean in CMIP5 models: historical bias, forcing response, and state dependence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118. 547-562. doi:10.1002/jgrd.50153
State of the Polar Oceans report published
News 18 July, 2018
More losers than winners for Southern Ocean marine life
News 4 September, 2017
NEWS STORY: Southern Ocean dynamics
News 2 June, 2014
The separation of the trends over the last few decades into adiabatic and diabatic components. By doing this I showed that while geographic surveys have shown a warming over the Southern Ocean, this is largely caused by the adiabatic movement of watermasses southward. This trend largely masks the water mass change itself, which is actually towards cooler and fresher on average. For more details see here.
A Drop in the Southern Ocean: A great short film showcasing the DIMES experiment, and particularly the final voyage (led by myself) of that multinational experiment. https://vimeo.com/97260669
Credit to Katy Sheen and Siobhan Moran for putting together such a great piece of work!