The Ocean provides a fundamental ecosystem service to our society by absorbing about 30% of atmospheric CO2 which helps mitigate the effects of climate change.
Zooplankton play a pivotal role in this process through the so-called Blue Carbon pathway, promoting the transport and storage of large quantities of Carbon to the deep oceanic sediments through the sinking of their faeces, moults and carcasses and through their vertical movement along the water column. Nowadays the zooplankton Blue Carbon pathway is potentially threatened by a global emerging stressor: plastic pollution.
The amount of plastic entering our oceans is increasing worldwide, with global implications for the health of our planet.
Once in the ocean, plastic litter breaks down into millions of small fragments called microplastics (< 1 mm), which can find their way into zooplankton and lower the sinking velocity of their faeces, moults and carcasses.
CUPIDO addresses two main scientific questions:
What is the role of zooplankton in promoting the transport of plastic in the ocean?
How may this plastic transport interfere with the ability of zooplankton to store carbon in the deep ocean?
The central hypothesis of CUPIDO is that the pathway of plastic from the ocean surface to the depth, when incorporated into zooplankton (named the Zooplankton Plastic Pump), will reduce the capability of the ocean to regulate atmospheric CO2 emissions.
To address this hypothesis, CUPIDO adopts cutting edge multidisciplinary approaches within an extensive field-based research program, carried out in two contrasting regions with relatively low (Southern Ocean) and high (Mediterranean Sea) level of plastic pollution. Through floating and moored ocean platforms and in situ experiments, CUPIDO will generate extensive datasets to feed ecological models to determine the impact of the Zooplankton Plastic Pump on the ecosystem service provided by the oceans in sequestering atmospheric CO2.
The potential loss in Carbon export and storage by the Ocean corresponds to a change in welfare for our society. Overall, CUPIDO outcomes will assess the potential loss in climate mitigation due to the Zooplankton Plastic Pump and the related economic cost to society.
The Innovation Showcase explains how innovative science and technology is helping or, in future, could substantially help the goals of COP26 and of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, enabling adaptation to climate change or informing action related to climate change.