Ultrastructure of pedal muscle as a function of temperature in nacellid limpets
Temperature and mitochondrial plasticity are well studied in fishes, but little is known about this relationship in invertebrates. The effects of habitat temperature on mitochondrial ultrastructure were examined in three con-familial limpets from the Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), and Singapore (Cellana radiata). The effects of seasonal changes in temperature were also examined in winter and summer C. ornata. Stereological methods showed that limpet pedal myocytes were 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller in diameter (≈3.5 μm) than in vertebrates, and that the diameter did not vary as a function of temperature. Mitochondrial volume density (Vv(mt,f)) was approximately 2–4 times higher in N. concinna (0.024) than in the other species (0.01 and 0.006), which were not significantly different from each other. Mitochondrial cristae surface density (Sv(im,mt)) was significantly lower in summer C. ornata (24.1 ± 0.50 μm2 μm−3) than both winter C. ornata (32.3 ± 0.95 μm2 μm−3) and N. concinna (34.3 ± 4.43 μm2 μm−3). The surface area of mitochondrial cristae per unit fibre volume was significantly higher in N. concinna, due largely to the greater mitochondrial volume density. These results and previous studies indicate that mitochondrial proliferation in the cold is a common, but not universal response by different species from different thermal habitats. Seasonal temperature decreases on the other hand, leading preferentially to an increase in cristae surface density. Stereological measures also showed that energetic reserves, i.e. lipid droplets and glycogen in the pedal muscle changed greatly with season and species. This was most likely related to gametogenesis and spawning.
Authors: Lurman, Glenn, Blaser, Till, Lamare, Miles, Tan, Koh-Siang, Poertner, Hans, Peck, Lloyd S., Morley, Simon A.