Marine Ecosystem Assessment for the Southern Ocean: Summary for Policymakers
i. The Antarctic Treaty System (beginning in 1959 with the Antarctic Treaty) and its emphasis on conservation and protection, exemplified in the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980) and its Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991), provide the most recent articulation of the global interest in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean and the need for their protection.
ii. The Southern Ocean and its ecosystems play critical roles in the climate system. Ecosystem functions are at risk because of anthropogenic climate change.
iii. Global policies and actions are urgently required to safeguard Southern Ocean ecosystems from the effects of climate change, ocean warming and acidification caused by greenhouse gas emissions.
iv. Regional human pressures on Southern Ocean species and ecosystems have been dominated by fisheries, with human presence (science and tourism) and pollution having localised, but increasing, impacts.
v. The Marine Ecosystem Assessment for the Southern Ocean (MEASO) has demonstrated the array of existing knowledge, data, tools and approaches available for informing decisions on conserving and sustaining the marine ecosystems in the region and the services they provide, and how implementation of those processes could be improved.
Authors: Constable, A.J., Melbourne-Thomas, J., Muelbert, M.M.C., McCormack, S., Brasier, M., Caccavo, J.A, Cavanagh, R.D. ORCID record for R.D. Cavanagh, Grant, S.M. ORCID record for S.M. Grant, Griffiths, H.J. ORCID record for H.J. Griffiths, Gutt, J., Henley, S.F., Höfer, J., Hollowed, A.B., Johnston, N.M., Morley, S.A. ORCID record for S.A. Morley, Murphy, E.J. ORCID record for E.J. Murphy, Pinkerton, M.H., Schloss, I.R., Swadling, K.M., van de Putte, A.P.