Evolution of Derwael Ice Rise in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, over the last millennia
Ice rises situated in the ice-shelf belt around Antarctica have a spatially confined flow regime with local ice divides. Beneath the divides, ice stratigraphy often develops arches with amplitudes that record the divide's horizontal residence time andsurface elevation changes. To investigate the evolution of Derwael Ice Rise, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, we combine radar and GPS data from three consecutive surveys, with a two-dimensional, full Stokes, thermomechanically-coupled, transient ice-flow model. We find that the surface mass balance (SMB) is higher on the upwind and lower on the downwind slopes. Near the crest, the SMB is anomalously low and causes arches to form in the shallow stratigraphy, observable by radar. In deeper ice, arches are consequently imprinted by both SMB and ice rheology (Raymond effect). The data show how arch amplitudes decrease as along-ridge slope increases, emphasizing that the lateral positioning of radar cross-sections is important for the arch interpretation. Using the model with three rheologies (isotropic with n = 3,4.5 and anisotropic with n = 3), we show that Derwael Ice Rise is close to steady-state, but is best explained using ice anisotropy and moderate thinning. Our preferred, albeit notunique, scenario suggests that the ice divide has existed for at least 5000 years and lowered at approximately 0.03 m a−1 over the last 3400 years. Independent of the specific thinning scenario, our modeling suggests that Derwael Ice Rise has exhibited a local flow regime at least since the Mid-Holocene.
Authors: Drews, R., Matusoka, K., Martín, C. ORCID record for C. Martín, Callens, D., Bergeot, N., Pattyn, F.