The Southern Ocean Ecosystem Affects The Entire World
The Southern Ocean, which flows around the Antarctic continent, is home to vast numbers of unique and remarkable animals, including penguins, albatrosses, petrels, seals, and whales. The ocean bursts into life every spring, fueling a summer feeding and breeding frenzy. During the dark winter months, there is little food and life is very harsh. Human activities such as fishing and pollution are affecting this ecosystem, as is climate change. These ecosystem changes matter beyond the Southern Ocean! Ocean currents carry nutrients and organisms into and out of the Southern Ocean. Many marine mammals and seabirds swim or fly in and out of the Southern Ocean, in search of food and breeding grounds, or to escape the harsh Antarctic winter. These movements and migrations connect the Southern Ocean ecosystem with other marine ecosystems around the world. This means that changes in the Southern Ocean ecosystem can affect ecosystems around the world.
Authors: Murphy, Eugene J. ORCID record for Eugene J. Murphy, Johnston, Nadine M., Hofmann, Eileen E., Phillips, Richard A., Jackson, Jennifer A. ORCID record for Jennifer A. Jackson, Constable, Andrew J.