The simulation of Antarctic sea ice in the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3)
An assessment is presented of the extent and variability of Antarctic sea ice in the non-flux-corrected version of the Hadley Centre's coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (HadCM3). The results are based on a 100 year segment of a long control run of the model with the sea ice being compared to ice extents and concentrations derived from passive microwave satellite data. Over the year as a whole, the model ice extent (the area with >15% ice concentration) is 91% of that determined from satellite imagery, but, not surprisingly, the regional-scale distribution differs from the observed. Throughout the year there is too much ice near 90° E, which is believed to be present as a result of incorrect ocean currents near Kerguelen. In contrast to the satellite data, there is too little ice to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula as a result of anomalously northerly atmospheric flow, compared to observations. During the winter the sea-ice concentrations in the model are too high, possibly as a result of the simple representation of the sea ice, which does not simulate complex dynamical interactions within the pack. The annual cycle of sea-ice advance/retreat in the model has a phase error, with the winter sea-ice maximum extent being too late by about 1 month.
Authors: Turner, John, Connolley, William, Cresswell, Doug, Harangozo, Stephen