The non-marine Crustacea of Antarctica and the islands of the Southern Ocean: biodiversity and biogeography
A total of 101 verified species and eight ordinal taxa represent the non-marine Crustacea on Antarctica and the islands of the Southern Ocean. The largely terrestrial Isopoda and Amphipoda are confined to some sub-Antarctic and cool temperate islands while the predominantly freshwater Anostraca, Anomopoda, Copepoda (=Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida) and Ostracoda (Podocopida) occur throughout the region. Holocene sea-level rises fragmented freshwater and terrestrial species ranges on New Zealand, Auckland, Campbell, and possibly other South Pacific islands, leaving a legacy of vicariant taxa. Tertiary species probably survived Pleistocene glaciation in aquatic refugia on the New Zealand/South Pacific, Falkland, Crozet and Kerguelen archipelagoes, but there are no valid records of Tertiary Antarctic Crustacea. All 40 Continental and Maritime Antarctic freshwater records can be ascribed to the historic introduction of anthropogenic aliens, Holocene immigration of colonists, returning re-colonists and marine species 'marooned' in epishelf and other coastal lakes.