We analyze the propagation properties of low-altitude hiss emission in the ionosphere observed by DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions). There exist two types of low-altitude hiss: type I emission at high latitude is characterized by vertically downward propagation and broadband spectra, while type II emission at low latitude is featured with equatorward propagation and a narrower frequency band above ∼fcH+. Our ray tracing simulation demonstrates that both types of the low-altitude hiss at different latitude are connected and they originate from plasmaspheric hiss and in part chorus emission. Type I emission represents magnetospheric whistler emission that accesses the ionosphere. Equatorward propagation associated with type II emission is a consequence of wave trapping mechanisms in the ionosphere. Two different wave trapping mechanisms are identified to explain the equatorial propagation of Type II emission; one is associated with the proximity of wave frequency and local proton cyclotron frequency, while the other occurs near the ionospheric density peak.
Authors: Chen, Lunjin, Santolík, Ondrej, Hajoš, Mychajlo, Zheng, Liheng, Zhima, Zeren, Heelis, Roderick, Hanzelka, Miroslav, Horne, Richard B. ORCID record for Richard B. Horne, Parrot, Michel