Short-term responses of king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus to helicopter disturbance at South Georgia
The short-term behavioural effects of helicopter overflights on breeding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus at South Georgia were examined. Seventeen helicopter overflights were made at altitudes between 230 and 1768 m above ground level. Noise from aircraft engines increased sound levels in the colony from a background level of 65-69 dB(A) to a maximum mean peak level of 80 dB(A) during overflights. Penguin behaviour changed significantly during all overflights at all altitudes compared to the pre- and post-flight periods. Pre-overflight behaviour resumed within 15 minutes of the aircraft passing overhead and no chicks or eggs were taken by predators during overflights. Non-incubating birds showed an increased response with reduced overflight altitude, but this was not observed in incubating birds. Variability in overflight noise levels did not affect significantly the behaviour of incubating or non-incubating birds. Penguins exhibited a reduced response to overflights as the study progressed (despite later flights generally being flown at lower altitudes) suggesting some degree of habituation to aircraft. To minimise disturbance to king penguins we recommend that overflights are undertaken at the maximum altitude that is operationally practical or avoided altogether.
Authors: Hughes, K A ORCID record for K A Hughes, Waluda, C M, Stone, R E, Ridout, M S, Shears, J R