Profile measurements of blowing snow at Halley, Antarctica
Measurements of blowing snow particle concentration from the second Stable Antarctic Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE 2) are presented. The measurements, made at Halley Station (75.6 degreesS, 26.7 degreesW) throughout the 1991 austral winter, are supplemented with profile measurements of wind speed, air temperature, and humidity. Threshold wind speeds for blowing snow are shown to be distinctly different for various episodes, often depending strongly on the the availability of loose snow. Blowing snow is measured to occur at Halley between 27 and 37% of the time during winter. Total winter (June, July, August) blowing snow sublimation at Halley is calculated to be around 4.7 mm water equivalent, 3.7% of total accumulation over the same period. Total winter blowing snow mass transport is calculated to be around 5.5 x 10(5) kg per metre width. Measured humidity profiles at Halley show that during winter blowing snow conditions, a layer of near-saturated air forms, causing total sublimation to be less than that for seasonal or limited fetch snow covers. The extent of sublimation is shown to be strongly dependent on wind speed, temperature and fetch.