Numerical simulations of melt-driven double-diffusive fluxes in a turbulent boundary layer beneath an ice shelf
The transport of heat and salt through turbulent ice shelf-ocean boundary layers is a large source of uncertainty within ocean models of ice shelf cavities. This study uses small-scale, high resolution, 3D numerical simulations to model an idealised boundary layer beneath a melting ice shelf to investigate the influence of ambient turbulence on double-diffusive convection (i.e. convection driven by the difference in diffusivities between salinity and temperature). Isotropic turbulence is forced throughout the simulations and the temperature and salinity are initialised with homogeneous values similar to observations. The initial temperature and the strength of forced turbulence are varied as controlling parameters within an oceanographically relevant parameter space. Two contrasting regimes are identified. In one regime double-diffusive convection dominates, and in the other convection is inhibited by the forced turbulence. The convective regime occurs for high temperatures and low turbulence levels, where it is long-lived and affects the flow, melt rate and melt pattern. A criterion for identifying convection in terms of the temperature and salinity profiles, and the turbulent dissipation rate, is proposed. This criterion may be applied to observations and theoretical models to quantify the effect of double-diffusive convection on ice shelf melt rates.
Authors: Middleton, Leo ORCID record for Leo Middleton, Vreugdenhil, Catherine A., Holland, Paul R. ORCID record for Paul R. Holland, Taylor, John R.