Near-surface turbulent fluxes in stable stratification: calculation techniques for use in general-circulation models
Practically oriented flux-calculation techniques based on correction functions to the neutral drag and heat/mass transfer coefficients are further developed. In the traditional formulation, the correction functions depend only on the bulk Richardson number. However, data from measurements of turbulent fluxes and mean profiles in stable stratification over different sites exhibit too strong variability in this type of dependencies. Indirect evidence from climate and weather prediction modelling also shows that the traditional flux-calculation technique is not sufficiently advanced. It is conceivable that other mechanisms besides the surface-layer stratification and, therefore, other arguments besides the bulk Richardson number must be considered. The proposed technique includes a newly discovered effect of the static stability in the free atmosphere on the surface-layer scaling and accounts for the general essential difference between the roughness lengths for momentum and scalars. Besides bulk Richardson number, recommended correction functions depend on one more stability parameter, involving the Brunt–Visl frequency in the free atmosphere, and on the roughness lengths.