Multi-station VLF direction-finding measurements in eastern Canada
The directions of propagation, in the earth-ionosphere waveguide, of multi-component two-hop whistlers recorded on 10 July 1972 by four VLF goniometer receivers in eastern Canada have been determined. Using the bearings of these great circle paths, triangulation of several whistler exit-points has been accomplished. The L-values of the whistler exit-points determined by this method are systematically lower than those expected from their nose frequencies, by ~ 0.6. Various explanations are discussed for this effect. The most satisfactory is that the whistler waves leave through the side of the ducts (in which they had propagated for most of their path through the magnetosphere) at an altitude of a few thousand kilometres, and then are refracted to lower L-values before exiting from the lower ionosphere. The results are consistent with both the duct termination altitude predicted by Bernhardt and Park (1977) for the appropriate conditions and also with the observed upper cut-off frequency of the whistlers.
Authors: Strangeways, H.J., Rycroft, M.J., Jarvis, Martin J.
1 January, 1982
Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics / 44