Mechanisms Defining Thermal Limits and Adaptation in Marine Ectotherms: An Integrative View
It is widely accepted that marine biogeography is largely
shaped by direct effects of temperature (Angel, 1991;
Murawski, 1993). Temperature also influences biodiversity
patterns at various latitudes (e.g.,Royet al.,1998;
Astorga et al.,2003). Climate-induced effects on marine
organisms are thus mostly attributed to a changing
temperature regime. These effects may be direct,
through effects of temperature itself, or indirect, through
thermally-induced changes in the composition of the
food chain or through fluctuating food availability in
time and space. Such changes may start with fluctuations
in phytoplankton availability influenced by temperature,
changing ocean currents and stratification or
changing levels of nutrients like iron (Gowen et al.,1995;
Reid et al.,1998; Wiltshire & Manly, 2004; Wang
et al.,2005). Recently, dramatic increases in biological
productivity have been demonstrated to have occurred
following glacier and ice shelf loss along the Antarctic
Peninsula (Peck et al.,2010a). These patterns, combined
with direct temperature effectsonhigher level foodchain
components, may lead to changing availability of, for
example, zooplankton for fish (e.g., Platt et al.,2003;
Beaugrand & Reid, 2003; Beaugrand et al.,2003).
Authors: Pörtner, Hans O., Peck, Lloyd S., Somero, George N.
Editors: Rogers, Alex D., Johnston, Nadine M., Murphy, Eugene J. ORCID record for Eugene J. Murphy, Clarke, Andrew ORCID record for Andrew Clarke
In: Rogers, Alex D., Johnston, Nadine M., Murphy, Eugene J. ORCID record for Eugene J. Murphy, Clarke, Andrew ORCID record for Andrew Clarke (eds.). Antarctic Ecosystems: An Extreme Environment in a Changing World, Blackwell Publishing, 379-416.
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