Electrical measurements of ice cores are used to obtain high time resolution records of past climate. The electrical conductivity method is sensitive to the acidity of the ice. The dielectric profiling method is sensitive to both the acidity of the ice and the concentration of NH4+ and Cl−. Both methods are frequently used to identify annual layers and fallout from volcanic eruptions.
Authors: Mulvaney, R. ORCID record for R. Mulvaney