Geomagnetically induced currents during the 07-08 September 2017 disturbed period: a global perspective
Measurements from six longitudinally separated magnetic observatories, all located close to the 53⁰ mid-latitude contour, are analysed. We focus on the large geomagnetic
16 disturbance that occurred during 7 and 8 September 2017. Combined with available geomagnetically induced current (GIC) data from two substations, each located near to a
18 magnetic observatory, we investigate the magnetospheric drivers of the largest events. We analyse solar wind parameters combined with auroral electrojet indices to investigate the driving mechanisms. Six magnetic field disturbance events were observed at mid-latitudes with dH/dt >60 nT/min. Co-located GIC measurements identified transformer currents >15 A during three of the events. The initial event was caused by a solar wind pressure pulse causing largest effects on the dayside, consistent with the rapid compression of the dayside geomagnetic field. Four of the events were caused by substorms. Variations in the Magnetic Local Time of the maximum effect of each substorm-driven event were apparent with magnetic midnight, morning-side, and dusk-side events all occurring. The six events
27 occurred over a period of almost 24 hours, during which the solar wind remained elevated at >700 km s
-1, indicating an extended time scale for potential GIC problems in electrical power networks following a sudden storm commencement. This work demonstrates the challenge of understanding the causes of ground-level magnetic field changes (and hence GIC magnitudes) for the global power industry. It also demonstrates the importance of
32 magnetic local time and differing inner magnetospheric processes when considering the global hazard posed by GIC to power grids.
Authors: Clilverd, Mark ORCID record for Mark Clilverd, Rodger, Craig J., Freeman, Mervyn P. ORCID record for Mervyn P. Freeman, Brundell, James B., Mac Manus, Daniel H., Dalzell, Michael, Clarke, Ellen, Thomson, Alan W.P., Richardson, Gemma S., MacLeod, Finlay, Frame, Ian