Geoeffectiveness of three Wind magnetic clouds: A comparative study
We compare the large-scale goemagnetic response to the three magnetic clouds observed by Wind in October 1995 (OCT95), May 1996 (MAY96), and January 1997 (JAN97), studying specifically storm and substorm activity, and other global effects due to untypically large and variable solar wind dynamic pressures. Since the temporal profiles of the interplanetary parameters of the three clouds resemble one another closely, the comparison is meaningful. Using the integrated Poynting flux into the magnetosphere as a rough measure of energy input into the magnetosphere, we find relative energy inputs to be OCT95: JAN97:MAY96 = 22:11:4, with most of the accumulation in the 3-day periods occurring during passage of the Bz 0 cloud phase and the leading edge of the fast stream; and (2) a weakening of the control of the cloud field on magnetosheath flow during the Bz > 0 cloud phase. In summary we find that under most of the aspects considered, OCT95 is the most geoeffective. The buffetting of the magnetospheric cavity by dynamic pressure changes was, however, strongest on JAN97. The profound differences in the magnetospheric response elicited by the clouds is found to be due to the amplitude, duration and rapidity of change of the relevant interplanetary parameters. At present, interplanetary monitors are indispensable for understanding the geomagnetic response to interplanetary structures.
Authors: Farrugia, C. J., Scudder, J. D., Freeman, M. P. ORCID record for M. P. Freeman, Janoo, L., Lu, G., Quinn, J. M., Arnoldy, R. L., Torbert, R. B., Burlaga, L. F., Ogilvie, K. W., Lepping, R. P., Lazarus, A. J., Steinberg, J. T., Gratton, F. T., Rostoker, G.