Editorial: Effects of ice loss on marine biodiversity
The Arctic and Antarctic oceans are undergoing changes in the extent of their sea-ice and ice-shelves (IPCC, in press). These have important impacts on the biodiversity, structure, and function of sea ice biota, pelagic and benthic communities, and will change the composition, distribution, and productivity of all species in these ecosystems (Constable et al., 2014; Lannuzel et al., 2020). Decreasing Arctic sea ice has led to a northwards shift in phytoplankton distributions (Nöthig et al., 2015; Metfies et al., 2016) and phytoplankton blooms were discovered in autumn (Ardyna et al., 2014). Shifts were also observed in the vertical and horizontal distributions of zooplankton communities (Wassmann et al., 2015). In the Antarctic, gigantic icebergs have calved from ice shelves and in some cases, entire ice shelves have collapsed enabling sunlight and currents to reach the underlying benthic communities and providing new space for pelagic ecosystems (e.g., Vernet et al., 2019). The benthic habitats and their faunal inhabitants under floating Antarctic ice shelves are among the least known marine communities on Earth.
Authors: Linse, Katrin ORCID record for Katrin Linse, Peeken, Ilka, Tandberg, Anne Helene Solberg