DNA metabarcoding reveals cryptic diversity in forest soils on the isolated Brazilian Trindade Island, South Atlantic
Located 1140 km from the South American coastline in the South Atlantic Ocean and with an age of 4 million years, Trindade Island is the most recent volcanic component of Brazilian territory. Its original native vegetation has been severely damaged by human influence, in particular through the introduction of exotic grazing animals such as goats. However, since the complete eradication of goats and other feral animals in the late 1990s, the island’s vegetation has been recovering, and even some endemic species that had been considered extinct have been rediscovered. In this study, we set out to characterize the contemporary cryptic diversity in soils of the recovering native forest of Trindade Island using metabarcoding by high throughput sequencing (HTS). The sequence diversity obtained was dominated by microorganisms, including three domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya) and five kingdoms (Fungi, Metazoa, Protozoa, Chromista, and Viridiplantae). Bacteria were represented by 20 phyla and 116 taxa, with Archaea by only one taxon. Fungi were represented by seven phyla and 250 taxa, Viridiplantae by five phyla and six taxa, Protozoa by five phyla and six taxa, Metazoa by three phyla and four taxa and Chromista by two phyla and two taxa. Even after the considerable anthropogenic impacts and devastation of the island’s natural forest, our sequence data reveal the presence of a rich and complex diversity of microorganisms, invertebrates, and plants and provide important baseline biodiversity information that will contribute to ecological restoration efforts on the island.
Authors: Câmara, Paulo E.A.S., Bones, Fábio Leal Viana, Lopes, Fabyano Alvares Cardoso, Oliveira, Fabio S., Barreto, Cristine Chaves, Henriques, Diego Knop, Campos, Larissa Paraguassu, Carvalho-Silva, Micheline, Convey, Peter ORCID record for Peter Convey, Rosa, Luiz Henrique