Climatology of quasi-2-day wave structure and variability at middle latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres.
Climatological structure of the quasi-2-day wave (Q2DW) at middle latitudes in temperature and horizontal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) was compared between the northern and southern hemispheres. Determination of the Q2DW in temperature was based on observation data by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite over 17 years from 2004 to 2021 and the Q2DW in horizontal winds was derived from Aura/MLS geopotential height data using balance equations. Amplitudes were maximized in summer in the southern hemisphere and in the meridional wind in the northern hemisphere, but in winter in the zonal wind in the northern hemisphere. Summer amplitudes were larger in the meridional wind than the zonal wind in the southern hemisphere, but zonal amplitudes in winter were larger than meridional amplitudes in summer in the northern hemisphere. Westward propagating zonal wavenumber 3 (W3) was largest in both hemispheres, but in addition to well-known W4, W3, W2 and eastward propagating zonal wavenumber 2 (E2), we also found W1, zonally symmetric standing (S0), and E1. Eliassen-Palm fluxes were derived for each mode. W3, W2, W1, and E2 fluxes were exhibited upward and poleward in January in the southern hemisphere while only W3 fluxes were exhibited clearly upward and poleward in July in the northern hemisphere. Comparison between Q2DW balance winds and radar winds showed modulations in amplitudes and phase of the Q2DW from the W3 by accumulating other modes. Furthermore, the balance winds and radar winds agreed in both amplitude and phase in the southern hemisphere and at lower latitudes in the northern hemisphere in January, and at lower latitudes in both hemispheres in July.
Authors: Iimura, H., Fritts, D.C., Lieberman, R.S., Janches, D., Mitchell, N.J., Franke, S.J., Singer, W., Hocking, W.K., Taylor, M.J., Moffat-Griffin, T. ORCID record for T. Moffat-Griffin