Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: How changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota
Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea-ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing differently in different regions. This paper reviews current and expected changes in ASO physical habitats in response to climate change. It then reviews how these changes may impact the autecology of marine biota of this polar region: microbes, zooplankton, salps, Antarctic krill, fish, cephalopods, marine mammals, seabirds, and benthos. The general prognosis for ASO marine habitats is for an overall warming and freshening, strengthening of westerly winds, with a potential pole-ward movement of those winds and the frontal systems, and an increase in ocean eddy activity. Many habitat parameters will have regionally specific changes, particularly relating to sea-ice characteristics and seasonal dynamics. Lower trophic levels are expected to move south as the ocean conditions in which they are currently found move pole-ward. For Antarctic krill and finfish, the latitudinal breadth of their range will depend on their tolerance of warming oceans and changes to productivity. Ocean acidification is a concern not only for calcifying organisms, but also for crustaceans such as Antarctic krill; it is also likely to be the most important change in benthic habitats over the coming century. For marine mammals and birds, the expected changes primarily relate to their flexibility in moving to alternative locations for food and the energetic cost of longer or more complex foraging trips for those that are bound to breeding colonies. Few species are sufficiently well studied to make comprehensive species-specific vulnerability assessments possible. Priorities for future work are discussed.
Authors: Constable, Andrew J., Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica, Corney, Stuart P., Arrigo, Kevin R., Barbraud, Christophe, Barnes, David K.A. ORCID record for David K.A. Barnes, Bindoff, Nathaniel L., Boyd, Philip W., Brandt, Angelika, Costa, Daniel P., Davidson, Andrew T., Ducklow, Hugh W., Emmerson, Louise, Fukuchi, Mitsuo, Gutt, Julian, Hindell, Mark A., Hofmann, Eileen E., Hosie, Graham W., Iida, Takahiro, Jacob, Sarah, Johnston, Nadine M., Kawaguchi, So, Kokubun, Nobuo, Koubbi, Philippe, Lea, Mary-Anne, Makhado, Azwianewi, Massom, Rob A., Meiners, Klaus, Meredith, Michael P. ORCID record for Michael P. Meredith, Murphy, Eugene J. ORCID record for Eugene J. Murphy, Nicol, Stephen, Reid, Keith, Richerson, Kate, Riddle, Martin J., Rintoul, Stephen R., Smith, Walker O., Southwell, Colin, Stark, Jonathon S., Sumner, Michael, Swadling, Kerrie M., Takahashi, Kunio T., Trathan, Phil N. ORCID record for Phil N. Trathan, Welsford, Dirk C., Weimerskirch, Henri, Westwood, Karen J., Wienecke, Barbara C., Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter, Wright, Simon W., Xavier, Jose C. ORCID record for Jose C. Xavier, Ziegler, Philippe