A comparison of midlatitude Pi 2 pulsations and geostationary orbit particle injections as substorm indicators
Both the injection of energetic particles at geostationary orbit and ground magnetic observations of Pi 2 wave activity are characteristic indicators of the onset of the substorm expansion phase. Occurrence statistics for the appearance of electron and proton particle injection at three geostationary spacecraft and for the detection of midlatitude magnetic Pi 2 pulsations in a 3-hour local time sector have been compiled from 240 hours of data. Throughout this interval a signature was detected on one or more of the instruments on average every 65 min. It is demonstrated that the detection of geostationary orbit particle injections and the detection of ground-based Pi 2 pulsations are correlated at a very high significance level, and that both appear to be effective substorm indicators. However, a small percentage of events (∼10% in each case) may be identified as a Pi 2 event but not as an injection event or viceversa, without any obvious explanation, such as the local time of the observing instrumentation. A number of possible explanations for the discrepancies between the two data sets are discussed
Authors: Yeoman, T.K., Freeman, Mervyn P. ORCID record for Mervyn P. Freeman, Reeves, G.D., Lester, M., Orr, D.