Palmer Land and Graham Land volcanic groups (Antarctic Peninsula): volcanology (Chapter 2.2a)
The break-up of Gondwana during the Early–Middle Jurassic was associated with flood basalt volcanism in southern Africa and Antarctica (Karoo–Ferrar provinces), and formed one of the most extensive episodes of continental magmatism of the Phanerozoic. Contemporaneous felsic magmatism along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana has been referred to as a silicic large igneous province, and is exposed extensively in Patagonian South America, the Antarctic Peninsula and elsewhere in West Antarctica. Jurassic-age silicic volcanism in Patagonia is defined as the Chon Aike province and forms one of the most voluminous silicic provinces globally. The Chon Aike province is predominantly pyroclastic in origin, and is characterized by crystal tuffs and ignimbrite units of rhyolite composition. Silicic volcanic rocks of the once contiguous Antarctic Peninsula form a southward extension of the Chon Aike province and are also dominated by silicic ignimbrite units, with a total thickness exceeding 1 km. The ignimbrites include high-grade rheomorphic ignimbrites, as well as unwelded, lithic-rich ignimbrites. Rhyolite lava flows, air-fall horizons, debris-flow deposits and epiclastic deposits are volumetrically minor, occurring as interbedded units within the ignimbrite succession.
Authors: Riley, Teal R. ORCID record for Teal R. Riley, Leat, Philip T.